1898 Wilmington Race Riot — Final Report, May 31, 2006 — (PDF)
 
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T A B L E   O F   C O N T E N T S
 
Front Matter Wilmington Race Riot Commission — North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources — Archives & History — Invitation for Public Comment — Introduction — Table of Contents— List of Maps  
 
Chapter 1 INTO RECONSTRUCTION AND OUT AGAIN — The End of the Civil War in Wilmington — Wilmington’s Social and Class Structure — Occupied Wilmington — Chronology of Reconstruction — Reconstruction in North Carolina — Legacy of Reconstruction — Reconstruction in Wilmington — Post Reconstruction Wilmington  
  MAP: Wilmington Ward Boundaries
MAP: African American Churches in Wilmington
MAP: Fire Stations in Wilmington, 1898
 
 
Chapter 2 FORCES OF CHANGE: Fusion Politics and the African American Community in Wilmington — Birth of Fusion — Early Fusion in Wilmington — Fusion Reform — Fusion Re-Visited in 1896 — Complete Fusion Victory — Fusion Focus on Wilmington — Wilmington’s African Americans and Fusion — Plans Laid to Force End of Fusion  
  MAP: Wilmington Schools, 1898
 
 
Chapter 3 PRACTICAL POLITICS: Writing, Speaking and Riding in the 1898 Campaign — Development of the Democratic “Machine” — Republican Reaction — Wilmington’s Democrats Organize — Alfred Moore Waddell — Vigilance Committees and Paramilitary Organization — The Wilmington Light Infantry — Chapter 3, Part 2  
 
Chapter 4 EVE OF DESTRUCTION — A Unifying Issue — Response of Wilmington’s Non-Democrats and African Americans — Final Maneuvers — Election Day — November Ninth: Mass Meeting of White Citizens — Response of the Committee of Colored Citizens  
  MAP: Homes of Key Participants
 
 
Chapter 5 NOVEMBER 10: "HELL JOLTED LOOSE" — March to the Record — Hell Broke Loose — Standoff at Sprunt’s Cotton Compress — Eye of the Storm – Fourth and Harnett Streets — WLI Enter Brooklyn — Machine Gun Squads — Coup d’etat  
  MAP: Wilmington Race Riot
MAP: Wilmington Race Riot Inset
 
 
Chapter 6 RESOUNDING CHANGE — Banishment Campaign — Men Banished From Wilmington During and After November 10th Violence — Dead and Wounded — Black Dead/Wounded — Other Targets — Waddell and his Cabinet — Peace Restored — Democrats Celebrate — Repayment for Services Rendered  
 
Chapter 7 DESTINY OF A RACE — State and National Reaction — Legal Strategies to Address Violence — African American Reaction — Democrats Practice Damage Control — Legislation to Affirm Coup — Disfranchisement — 1900 Election — Historical Voting Statistics for New Hanover County — Moving Forward — Changes for African American Education — Employment — Complete Change  
 
Chapter 8 REBUILDING — Political Consequences — Economic Consequences — Tabulation of Summary Data from the 1897 and 1900 City Directories — African American Occupations by Category from 1897 and 1900 Wilmington City Directories — Changes in the 1900 City Directory — African American Occupation Changes in the 1897 and 1900 City Directories — Directory Data and Entrepreneurship — Property Ownership — Census Analysis — Case Studies — Mapping the City — Societal Change — Collective Memory — Wilmington’s Riot and Racial Clashes in the South  
  MAP: African American Businesses, 1897
MAP: African American Businesses, 1900
MAP: Residential Patterns by Race, 1897
MAP: Residential Patterns by Race, 1905
 
 
Appendix A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES  
 
Appendix B AFRICAN AMERICAN CHURCHES IN WILMINGTON  
 
Appendix C CHANGES TO WILMINGTON CHARTER, 1868-1901  
 
Appendix D NEW HANOVER COUNTY TAX LISTS: 1897 and 1900  
 
Appendix E WILMINGTON SCHOOLS  
 
Appendix F ROSTER OF THE WILMINGTON LIGHT INFANTRY AND NAVAL RESERVES  
 
Appendix G "EVER THREATENED… EVER IN NEED": ALEXANDER MANLY’S CONFRONTATION WITH THE DEMOCRATIC CAMPAIGN IN 1898 NORTH CAROLINA  
 
Appendix H PSYCHOLOGY OF THE WILMINGTON RIOT  
 
Appendix I ESSAY ON WILMINGTON CRIME, ECONOMY AND CORRUPTION PRIOR TO 1898  
 
Appendix J PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY CORRESPONDENCE, 1898  
 
Appendix K CITY DIRECTORY DATA  
 
Appendix L PROPERTY TRANSACTIONS BY AFRICAN AMERICANS, WITH J-Z SURNAMES  
 
Appendix M REMEMBERING 1898: LITERARY RESPONSES AND PUBLIC MEMORY OF THE WILMINGTON RACE RIOT  
 
Appendix N TIMELINE  
 
Appendix O "1898 WILMINGTON RACE RIOT ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS" — PRELIMINARY FINDINGS — BY TOD HAMILTON AND DR. WILLIAM A. DARITY, JR.  
 
Bibliography PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON WILMINGTON RACE RIOT OF 1898  

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Destruction of the Manly printing press for the Wilmington Record November 10, 1898

Destruction of the printing press was the first violent conduct by a mob of white supremacists. This newly discovered photograph provides more insight into the day’s activity and up-close analysis of the men shows a large number of guns, pistols, and the clear destruction of the building.

Photograph courtesy of the New Hanover County Public Library



North Third Street between Harnett and Bladen Streets [November 10, 1898]

This newly discovered photograph contains two "x" marks where a witness said two black men died. One of the men was surely Daniel Wright, whose murder was chronicled in several eyewitness accounts. The other dead man remains, as yet, unnamed.

Photograph courtesy of the New Hanover County Public Library

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